The Hegemony of Hollywood
Since its inception, the Hollywood knew handle front making films, some of which have become classics of cinema, with a keen sense of the promotion. To establish its hegemony on the cinema planet, Hollywood has developed techniques for selling its films, has worked
The Hollywood does not limit himself to be a master at promoting his films. He was also able to highlight the cinema – cinema – as a whole, because the film shows only very belatedly pure presentation of the film. In 1922, only 68% of the rooms of the program consist of films. The rest of the meeting was devoted to musical presentations, vaudeville numbers, etc. The 100% programs films begin after the generalization of speaking. The doubleheader, news, cartoons adorn the output that exceeds the mere fact of go see a movie. Similarly, the development of air conditioning in the rooms (in 1921 by Balaban and Katzin Chicago), the construction of Palace Cinemas, selling sweets and related services show that it is an illusion to reduce the marketing of commercial theater in marketing of films.
Established in 1922, the MPPDA (Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America) will play a major role in the collective promotion of cinema outings. Its charter, in effect, assigns it to fight against criticism of the waves that beset the trade movies and restore to the public image of a deemed too vulgar movies. The establishment of a production code will make it possible to fulfill this objective Abusively nicknamed Code Hays. This code is, in fact, a way of avoiding both the threat of federal censorship but also of local censorship. In addition, and this is what is important to us here, it allows us to sell the image of a clean cinema. The establishment, in the process, of the annual Oscars ceremony pursues the same objective.
In the 1950s, the code fell into disuse. Foreign films, especially European ones, which arrive on screens, make the prior censorship rules obsolete. Thus, in November 1968, the MPAA – which succeeded the MPPDA – set up a system of classification of films a posteriori (the rating system). Different in its application, the rating system is identical to the code in its final philosophy: placing the cinema outside the various censors, highlighting going out to the cinema as clean, family leisure…
If Hollywood was able to appear far ahead of other cinemas, particularly European, it was first by taking into account earlier marketing. It is then for reasons of structure of the cinematographic sectors outside the United States, very marked by artisanal approaches. But the techniques are getting closer and the main markets considerably increase their investments. On the French market, the total amount devoted to the distribution of films has increased by almost 5 times from 1992 to 2000. Even lagging markets, such as the Russian market, are starting to use Hollywood sales techniques as we was able to see it for Night Watch in 2004 or more recently The Ninth Company in 2005 (notably via the massive use of television advertising).
The strategic advantage of Hollywood cinema is in fact based on the image it has created. By imposing its presence on foreign markets thanks to the sagacity of its first entrepreneurs, the tenacity, the brutality sometimes of its representatives, Hollywood cinema has placed itself in a virtuous circle, and the success of each film strengthens the winning aura. of all of American cinema. A Titanic not only raises dollars for its producers but reinstalls the great Hollywood form in the hearts of the public. The other national cinemas do not have this aura even if we see cinemas like Bollywood benefit for a few years from the initial success of some Indian films outside their usual area of distribution.
Made in Hollywood, USA may no longer mean much when more than a quarter of American films are shot outside the borders, but the image associated with Hollywood films remains significant and constitutes a decisive advantage in communication. Is Angelina Jolie Going Overboard With Botox And Fillers Because Of Brad Pitt And Jennifer Aniston? The fact remains that new challenges await the majors: ensuring a growing number of films, released in an increasingly short time, a global communication that remains adapted to the realities of each market.