Protection of the eyes and face Glasses, masks and face shields
In the world of work, the eyes, as also mentioned in Annex VIII of Legislative Decree 81/2008, must be protected from a multiplicity of risks. For example: optical hazards (natural and artificial light or radiation sources cause a large part of eye injury, depending on the wavelength); mechanical risks (coarse and fine-grained dust, high-speed particles, incandescent bodies and metals); chemical risks (aerosols and performs, splashes or drops of chemical solutions that can penetrate the eye, corrode the retina and damage eyesight); thermal risks (cold can cause protracted tearing, heat can cause inflammation or burns.
And protection from the projection risks related to mechanical processing, the use of chemicals and exposure to optical radiation that could damage the eye itself or alter vision can be obtained with different devices, also depending on the need for protect the face.
The multimedia project Impress Jurassic – developed by EBER , EBAM , Marche Region, Emilia-Romania Region and Snail – which has been validated by the Permanent Consultative Commission for health and health, speaks in these terms of the eye and face protection devices. Safety as good practice in the session of 27 November 2013. Project that over the years has produced not only various materials related to prevention in various work sectors (engineering, shipbuilding, woodworking, footwear,), but also a detailed collection of information on Personal Protective Equipment in the document.
The document underlines that the eyes are protected by protective glasses or protections to be fixed on the glasses and the face is protected by means of visors or protective screens. They are formed by the frame, which must be positioned perfectly on the face, and by the lenses (UNI EN 166), whose size determines the width of the visual field. The presence of lateral guards avoids the lateral penetration of both substances and radiation. On the market there are safety glasses with side shields equipped with openings for ventilation. Both the frame and the lenses must maintain their characteristics with changes in temperature and humidity (also due to sweat), and therefore must be made of non-deform able or flammable materials, and at the same time not harmful to health.
The protection screens are generally fixed to the protection helmet or to other support devices, but they are not completely closed. They must protect against splinters, splashes, sparks, radiant heat and chemicals and must be difficult to ignite such as polarizer film. Some screens have transparent safety plates with filtering action. A foil positioned on the inside of the screen protects against electrostatic discharge. The hand screens are made of a lightweight material construction with an exchangeable plate opening. They are held with the hand and protect the eyes, face and parts of the neck from thrown materials, splashes and radiation. The hoods, in different materials, are used together with the protective helmet or other support devices.
The document contains a useful table with the selection criteria that lead to preference for one device over the other. In any case, when choosing the type of protection, with reference to the risks related to the projection of solid bodies, the following elements must also be taken into account.
After reporting regulatory indications (Legislative Decree 81/2008) and indications relating to the marking for mechanical resistance, the document publishes a large prospect that provides a brief summary of some types and sources of danger in the protection of the eye and face in the industrial sector, a statement that clearly cannot however be exhaustive of professional risks. The document related to the Safe Enterprise project contains further indications on many topics: symbols of mechanical impact resistance, optical class, net protectors for eyes and face, face shields, high performance visors and helmets, industrial sunscreens, inspections of PPE before use, maintenance, specific welding equipment, marking for laser eye protectors, eye protectors against laser radiation.